Cadmium Tungstate Scintillation Crystal

Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4, CWO) single crystal is an important scintillation materials applied in the radiation detection technology, especially for security checking , industrial CT and medical imaging. Large-size CWO single crystals with high quality were grown successfully by vertical Bridgman process in our company in recent years. CWO single crystal has a density as high as 7.9 g/cm-3 without any deliquescence. Under high-energy rays radiation such as X-rays or γ-rays, the crystal exhibits the luminescence output with a central wavelength of 470 nm. The crystal possesses a series of scintillation properties such as a relative light yield 2~3 times of BGO crystal, a low afterglow only 10-2 grade relative to CsI(Tl) crystal and a γ-ray radiation hardness of 107 rad. Our company provide the mass products of CWO wafers and array elements, which can meet the technical requirements for radiation detection devices.

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Tab.  Materials properties of CWO single crystal


Crystal orientation


Crystal structure

Monoclinic system,Space group P2/c

Crystal lattice

a = 5.029?,b = 5.859?,c = 5.074 ?;α = γ = 90o,β = 91.47o 

Melting point




Thermal expansion coefficient

6.39×10-6 /K(<100>),1.09 × 10-5 /K(<010>)

Refractive index



4.5 Mohs




Nearly colorless to pale yellowish brown 



Central wavelength of luminescence

470 nm

Relative light yield index

20-30   (NaI(Tl) crystal with a light yield

 index 100 is used as reference)

Absolute light yield

2760 ± 50 p.e /MeV

Energy resolution


Luminescence decay time

1.3 μs (36%, fast),11.5 μs (64%, slow) 


less than 0.04%@3 ms

γ-ray radiation hardness

107 rad





                     Fig. 1  Ultroviolet-visible transmission spectra                                       Fig.2  X-ray stimulated luminescence spectra



                  Fig. 3 Energy spectrum and light yield of CWO                      Fig. 4  Luminescence decay time of CWO wafer under UV excitation

                                wafer under γ-ray excitation



                     Fig. 5  Afterglow of CWO crystal less than 0.04%@3ms          Fig.6  Relative light yield uniformity of crystal array elements

                                under γ-ray excitation  which only 10-2 grade 

                                relative to CsI(Tl) crystal

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